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The reign of Augustus, and the recently achieved Pax Romana , is implicit as the natural finale of the story. In the year , on April 6, in a church in Avignon, Petrarch first sees Laura, the beautiful young woman with whom he falls deeply and forever in love.

Although the complete work of Herodotus is not yet published, Thucydides is certain to know the work of the older historian - who has made his living by reciting the highlights of his narrative. Herodotus has told the story of the last great war, between Greeks and Persians.

In Thucydides recognizes the onset of the next major conflict, between Greeks. He resolves to record the Peloponnesian War as it happens. Thucydides ' history is continued from BC by the third and last of the great trio of Greek historians - Xenophon.

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The fact that a contemporary continues the work so precisely from this date proves that Thucydides did indeed finish his work there, rather than the remainder being lost. But Xenophon, though a vivid writer, proves a very inadequate historian at a serious level. A supporter of Sparta, he lacks any sense of objectivity. Fortunately this does not spoil the work which has made him famous. In BC he finds himself part of a Greek force making a desperate retreat from Persia.

Objectivity is irrelevant. He describes only what he sees and hears. The result is vivid eyewitness history, akin almost to journalism. In addition to epic poetry, tragedy, comedy and history, the Greeks pioneer yet another branch of literature - philosophy.

The earliest Greek philosophers, begining with Thales in the 6th century, are concerned chiefly with what we would call science. They seek explanations of the mysteries of the cosmos and of our planet. But their method is philosophical rather black celibacy dating scientific.

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Instead of observing the natural world, and testing their ideas against what they observe a scientific procedure for which they lack the equipmentthey take a more high-minded and dangerous route. They dream up magnificent theories which can only be judged by their own interior consistency - a congenital habit of philosophers. Greece, in the century following Parmenides, sees the rise of a professional class often described as philosophers. They are the Sophists, who derive their name from the same Greek root, sophos.

But unlike pure philosophers, their aims are practical. They are travelling teachers, earning their living by educating the sons of the rich. Education of this kind is carried out largely in conversation. The dialogue becomes a feature of the classroom, and the art of persuasion - formalized as vizualizări baptist despre dating - is an important part of the curriculum.

Like the teaching of Confucius in China a little earlier, this training prepares young men to make their way in the world. There is a particular need for it in Athens.

Socrates, one of the most famous philosophers in history, is the author of not a single book. All that is known about his philosophy derives from what he says in the Socratic dialogues of Plato.

These are written some years after his death. It is a much black celibacy dating question whether the ideas they contain are mainly those of Socrates or Plato.

During his life Socrates is a familiar figure in Athens - sufficiently so to be satirized in BC in a play of AristophanesThe Clouds the modern equivalent would be featuring on television in Spitting Image.

He is said to be ugly in appearance. He is also eccentric, cussed and tetchy, but with an underlying charm - characteristics shared by many a great teacher. After the defeat of Athens by Sparta in an oligarchic government, brought to power by the Spartans, imposes a brief reign of terror on the city. Democracy is soon restored, but some followers of Socrates have been connected with the repressive oligarchs.

In a charge of impiety is brought against him. The two particular accusations are 'corruption of the young' and 'neglect of the gods whom the city worships'.

Plato is in court on the day of the trial. Some years later he writes the Apology, an account of what Socrates says in his own defence. It is in itself partly a Socratic dialogue; the philosopher leads his accuser into various absurd statements. Plato's fame today derives from his philosophical works, perhaps more influential than any others over the centuries. In his own time an equally great accomplishment is the school he black celibacy dating in about BC in Akademia, a suburb of Athens.

From the accident of its location come the words 'academy' and 'academic'. Instruction at the school includes mathematics in the mystical tradition of Pythagorasgeometry, law and the natural sciences - in addition to philosophy.

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Plato's academy lasts more than nine centuries, until closed in AD by the Christian emperor Justinian. It has a good claim to be considered the world's first university. The Symposium, one of the best-known pieces featuring Socrates, is almost an early example of a novella, or short novel.

It describes Socrates going as a guest to a dinner held in BC in the house of a playwright, Agathon, who in that year achieves his first theatrical victory in the Lenaea. The victory and the playwright are historical, but not one of his plays has survived. It is decided that each man shall take it in turns to make a speech in praise of Eros, the god of love. Through the sequence of speeches, and the conversation arising from them, Plato is able to turn the occasion into a dialogue black celibacy dating the nature of love.

The idea of a higher Beauty or Good the two are treated as if almost synonymousof which the reality known to us is only a pale reflection, is a central concept in Plato's philosophy.

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Known as the theory of Forms, it probably derives from Socrates but is much elaborated by Plato. The Forms are eternal realities, existing in some higher realm, of which our physical senses only perceive a transient and partial version.

There are not only Forms of abstract qualities such as Beauty and Good. There is even, somewhere, the ideal Form of a tree, a chair or a cow. It is a striking fact that the three greatest philosophers of the ancient world are like three generations of an Athenian family. Socratesin the last ten years of his life, discusses the eternal verities with Platoa young member of his circle. Plato, in the last 20 years of his life, has Aristotle as first a pupil and then a teaching colleague in his famous academy.

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The trio, whose ideas in different ways dominate western speculation for the next two millennia, are in a very real sense akin to a grandfather, father and son. But while the first two generations remain closely linked, the third - in the form of Aristotle - takes a radically different approach.

Even if some are lost, nearly fifty works attributed to Aristotle have come down to us. They fall into several distinct categories. Of his various works on logic the Prior Analytics has been the most influential, for it introduces the important device of the syllogism. This is a deductive procedure, used in philosophy ever since, which leads from two categorical premises to an implicit conclusion. From the premises 'All men need to eat' and 'All Greeks are men', the conclusion can be drawn that 'All Greeks need to eat'.

The final flowering black celibacy dating Sanskrit literature takes place at the courts of the Gupta dynasty. By this time the spoken languages of India have long been evolving in their own separate directions. Sanskrit has become a literary language, known and used only by a small educated minority - much like Latin in medieval Europe.

The poems and plays of the Gupta period are correspondingly artificial in style, but at their best they have considerable charm. Shakuntala, a play of about AD by Kalidasa, has been popular far beyond India's borders ever since its translation into English and German in the 18th century. The golden age of Latin literature coincides with the peace and prosperity of Italy in the early decades of the empire.

The link is more than coincidence. In the intimate circle of the emperor Augustus is the immensely rich Maecenas, whose name has become synonymous with patronage of the arts; and the writers encouraged by Maecenas share the widespread enthusiasm for the peace brought to Rome by Augustus.

So the Augustan Agein literary terms, is a circle of mutual benefit and esteem. Born in 70 BC in a farming community near Mantua, Rome's greatest poet finds his inspiration in the traditions black celibacy dating history of the Italian countryside. As a young adult Virgil lives under the shadow of the civil wars which convulse Italy during the 40s one of his earliest poems, the first Eclogue, concerns the confiscation of Virgil's family farm to settle veteran soldiers after the battle of Philippi.

In his work he celebrates the subsequent peace. Virgil's reputation is established with the publication of the ten short Eclogues, written between 42 and 37 BC see Publishing in Rome. Their success brings him to the notice of his future patron, Maecenas. Between them, in an ever-shifting balance, the works of Plato and Aristotle remain the dominant influence on western thought for years, until the time of Descartes.

In 3rd-century Rome Plotinus merges them in Neo-Platonism.

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During the dark ages of western Europe their works are preserved and commented on by Greek scholars in Constantinople, by Persians such as Avicenna and by Arabs and Jews in Spain AverröesMaimonides. Such men hand on the tradition until Aristotle is adopted as the patron saint of scholasticism and Plato, in his turn, of the Renaissance.

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This is a remarkable result from some sixty years of hard thinking in ancient Athens. Virgil's greatest work, on which he spends the rest of his life, is written when Octavian has been named Augustus Caesar and is in fact though not in theory a Roman emperor. Where the Georgics gently celebrate Italy and its countryside, the Aeneid is an epic in praise of Rome - the power which will liberate the genius of the Italian people.

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The reign of Augustus, and the recently achieved Pax Romanais implicit as the natural finale of the story. By a quirk of fate Augustus himself, praised for saving Rome, also saves the poem.

It is in his interest to do so. The Aeneid traces his own descent back to Aeneas himself, the founder of Rome.

Horace represents a new idea of the poet, similar to one later developed in another culture - China in the T'ang dynasty. In this tradition the poet is someone distanced from the immediate business of public life, free to concentrate on capturing, in the difficult craft of poetry, more lasting perceptions of the human condition.

The subjects of Horace's short but tightly packed Odes called Carmina or 'songs' in their Latin title black celibacy dating friendship, love, wry amusement at the passing scene - anything which might occur to a man living a quiet country existence but in touch with a wide circle of sophisticated acquaintances. The setting for this existence is his famous Sabine farm.

The fourth great author writing in Latin during the Augustan Age is not so much a celebrant of the emperor's achievements as a victim of his autocracy. Ovid is a generation younger than Black celibacy dating, Horace and Livy. By the time he is an adult, from about 23 BC, the civil wars are over; the stability and prosperity of the new Roman empire are established facts. High life, rather than a quiet life, is what appeals to Ovid and his contemporaries.

And his poetic talents are well suited to amuse a society devoted to pleasure. Chinese poetry achieves its golden age during the T'ang dynasty.

The ability to turn an elegant verse is so much part of civilized life that almost 50, poems by some poets survive from the period. Poetry is a social activity.

Friends write stanzas for each other to commemorate an occasion, and competitive improvization is a favourite game at a party or on a picnic. Early in the dynasty news of a child prodigy, a girl of seven, reaches the court. She is brought before the empress and is asked to improvize on the theme of bidding farewell to her brothers.

The Resulting poemdelivered in this alarming context, is brilliant - though no doubt polished in the telling.

  1. HISTORY OF LITERATURE
  2. Enjoy the Famous Daily Mesopotamia: 3rd millennium BC The earliest uses of writing are strictly practical - lists of commodities, temple accounts, details of a contract.
  3. Amidst the protests, the LGBTI community fell victim of days of hate speech, police violence and arrests.

The three greatest T'ang poets are exact contemporaries in the black celibacy dating 8th century. One of them, Wang Wei, begins his career with a brilliant success in the official examinations but he rarely holds the high positions which this would normally imply ssee Chinese examinations.

More important to him is his villa in the mountains dating herbst tipps of the capital city, at Wang-ch'uan. The beauty of the landscape inspires Wang Wei both as painter and poet. None of his paintings survive, but later Chinese landscapes reveal the closely related influence of the countryside in both art forms. A poet of the next dynasty writes of Wang Black celibacy dating that there are pictures in his poems and poems in his pictures.

The first Christian writer since St Paul to reach a wide readership is also the last great figure in the story of Latin literature. Confessions, his account of his early life and conversion to Christianity, is the world's first autobiography, introducing the genre with a masterpiece. And the massive City of God is one of the most influential works of Christian philosophy.

The author of these very different but seminal works is the bishop of Hippo in north Africa, St Augustine. Augustine's famous Confessions is essentially a spiritual autobiography, written from the viewpoint of a Christian bishop describing how he came to the truth.

It provides a rare and fascinating glimpse of the prevailing influences on an intelligent young man in the declining years of the Roman empire and the early centuries of established Christianity.

Augustine's mother, Monica, is a Christian; his father is a pagan; but their main concern is that their brilliant son shall thrive in the world, probably as a civil servant. Instead, as a student at Carthage, he becomes interested in philosophy and launches into a precarious existence as a freelance teacher.

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A powerful influence reaching Japan from China along with Buddhismthe bureaucracy of Confucianism and even the game of go is Chinese literature and the Chinese script. When the first texts reach Japan, perhaps in the 4th century AD, the Japanese language has not yet been written down. The first Japanese scribes adapt the Chinese characters to the needs of a very different language, in an unnatural alliance which has remained awkward ever since.

The earliest surviving works in Japanese date from the flowering of court life at Nara in the 8th century. There are compilations of legend and history, and a magnificent anthology of early Japanese poems. The Heian periodwith the Japanese capital at Kyoto, is distinguished by literature as elegant and subtle as the style of the court itself.

As in China, poetry is here black celibacy dating an essential element of civilized life. The competitive writing of verses is a social pastime.

A good poet can expect preferment at court. Messages from a lover to his mistress are welcome in poetic form, preferably attached to an arrangement of flowers.

In the emperor commissions an anthology of poems, in the tradition of the Manyoshu of earlier times. The new collection, the Kokinshu, consists almost entirely of short tanka. It is more artificial than its predecessor - and more restricting in its subsequent influence. In the heyday of classical Chinese culture, a civilized gentleman - meaning a Confucian official - should be adept in three different artistic fields.

When he settles down before a fresh sheet of paper and dips his brush in the ink ground from a block of pigment by a servantno one can be certain whether he is about to pen an impromptu poem, paint a quick impression of a romantic landscape or fashion some traditional phrase in exquisite Chinese characters.

The three skills, all expressed in the beauty of brush strokes, are closely linked. A 'soundless poem' is a conventional Chinese term for a picture. And a typical poem by the Song master Ou-yang Hsiu Sounds like a painting.

The poems of the Arab nomads are invented, embroidered, recited by specialists known as sha'ir meaning approximately 'one who knows', and therefore close to the English word 'seer'. Recorded in anthologies of the 8th century and 9th century, and dating from perhaps two centuries earlier, the surviving examples provide a rare glimpse of poems from a pre-literate era.

They fall into two categories. The earlier tradition consists of short poems of a passionately casual dating seattle kind. With few exceptions, the theme is praise of one's own tribe or abuse of the enemy.

The other kind of poem, known as qasidah, is longer up to lines and more elaborate in form. The eastern Mediterranean coast, occupied so rapidly by the Arabs in the 7th century, has been part of the Greek world since the time of Alexander the Great in the 4th century BC.

Conquest by the Romans does not displace Greek civilization in this region, nor at first black celibacy dating the Arab caliphs.

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They rule over communities which understand Greek and which possess manuscripts of the classic works of Greek literature. Many have already been translated in Antioch into Syriac - a local version of Aramaic.

Of the medical works of Galenfor example, as many as exist in Syriac. In the 8th century, when the caliphate has moved to Baghdadscholars begin translating these available Greek and Syriac texts into Arabic. Although Greece is geographically close to Italy, and Greek literature is highly prized in ancient Rome, western Europe loses touch with its Greek intellectual roots during the centuries after the collapse of the Roman empire.

And Byzantine Constantinople has no incentive to enlighten them. It is the Arab interest in Greek philosophy and science that eventually transmits the tradition to western Europe, along the unbroken belt of Muslim civilization stretching from Greek Antioch in the northeast Mediterranean to Latin Toledo in the west.

The Thousand and One Nights, better known in the west as the Arabian Nights, is a collection in Arabic of popular tales handed down in an oral tradition.

The earliest historically identifiable details in the stories suggest that they are first gathered together in the late 8th century, in the Baghdad of Harun al-Rashid. They continue to be added to, with the collection probably reaching its present form in Cairo in the 15th century.

The black celibacy dating are held together within the framework of another story, taking place in the harem of a fierce and bitter sultan. The Germanic peoples of northern Europe are rivalled only by the ancient Greeks in their genius at transforming the shared myths and memories of the tribe into epic literature.

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Unlike Homer 's Greek epic, no name is attached to the great Germanic poems. But the circumstances in each case are similar. In Mycenaean Greece and in the Europe of the Dark Ages great events take place under the leadership of a warrior caste which is largely illiterate.

The stories of the battlefield deserve constant retelling. The lord's followers need to be entertained after supper in the dark nights of winter. The stage is set for the bard. The poem of Beowulf, amounting to lines, is the first and the greatest surviving work of early Germanic literature.

The story tells of fantastic fights against fierce dragons, but it is set in an authentic historical context of Scandinavia in the 6th century see Beowulf - the story.

Mingled with the original black celibacy dating material of the epic is a thread of Christian commentary and imagery.

This blend, matching the experience of the Anglo-Saxons in England, gives likely clues to the poem's date. Iceland provides the fullest surviving record of Germanic mythology, legend and history. The earliest examples are found in a manuscript written in the 13th century, known as the Elder Edda or sometimes Poetic Eddawhich is preserved in the Royal Library in Copenhagen.

The opening poem in the Elder Edda entitled Völuspá recounts Norse mythology, from the creation story onwards. Though composed in Iceland, probably in the 10th century, the material is based on earlier sources deriving from Norway and possibly from Norse settlements in Britain. The western half of Charlemagne's Frankish empireapproximating to modern France, introduces in the 12th century a new and black celibacy dating strand in European literature.

The Franks, as a Germanic tribe, enjoy a powerful epic tradition from Beowulf to the Nibelungenlied in which heroism is the stock-in-trade of fierce warriors beset by often monstrous dangers.

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But in this western part of the Frankish empire - profoundly influenced by Rome, and speaking a Romance language rather than a Germanic one - there now emerges an element which borrows its name from these qualities.

The arrival of romance transforms the warrior into a gentleman. The Victorian Legislative Council passed The Change Or Suppression Conversion Practices Prohibition Bill with 27 to 9 votes in favour, with bipartisan support and without amendments to the proposal that passed in the Lower House in December A new rule went into effect in Australiaallowing gay and bisexual men to donate blood after three months of celibacy.

In Aotearoa New ZealandNew Zealand Post has issued a special stamp to celebrate Pride month and mark the 35th anniversary of the passing of the Homosexual Law Reform Act that decriminalised same-sex relationships. In Florida, United Statesthe agency that enforces state civil rights law has affirmed that discrimination in employment, housing, and public accommodations based on sexual orientation and gender identity is illegal.

In the state of New York, United Statesthe governor signed legislation repealing portions of a law - known as the 'Walking While Trans' ban - that led to arbitrary and discriminatory policing of trans women.

Africa عادت تينا إلي المنزل بعد حبس لمدة تزيد عن العام، عام من تقييد الحرية، عام من الحبس الانفرادي، عام من عدم اخذ السلطات Tina was arrested in January and sentenced for three years in prison on the charge of promoting and inciting debauchery online, and her appeal was later rejected.

Ever since the moment of the arrest, she had been in solitary confinement — something that continued to take a very serious toll on her mental and physical health.

She was reportedly denied access to hormones, in addition to being locked up alone in a small cell in a country whose language she does not speak. After one year, Tina was able to return to Cyprus, where she will finish serving her sentence. More news from Africa A man in South Africa whose husband died tragically in Zanzibar, Tanzania reported being ignored and humiliated by local authorities, as they failed to recognise his marriage, delayed the repatriation of the remains, and ignored his requests to be black celibacy dating the autopsy report for months.

A survey showed that the HIV prevalence among key populations is almost twice to five times higher than their peers. Nesta data, foi quando pela primeira vez black celibacy dating história do Brasil, travestis e transexuais estiveram no Congresso Nacional para falar aos parlamentares brasileiros sobre a realidade dessa população.

Meanwhile, human rights organisations have taken the occasion to celebrate the work of trans activists in the country, but also to point out the excruciating toll that transphobia keeps taking over the community in Brazil.

A report launched by Associação Nacional de Travestis e Transexuais Antra showed that trans and gender diverse persons were murdered across Brazil in While numbers might be much higher, as there is no official government data on the issue, these horrific figures speak of one reported murder every two days, in a situation that has worsened during the Covid pandemic, and that is most likely to affect trans persons between the age of 15 and